Scientists currently study memory from many different perspectives: neurobiological, ethological, animal conditioning, cognitive, behavioral neuroscience, social, and cultural. The aim of this book is to help initiate a new science of memory by bringing these perspectives together to create a unified understanding of the topic. The book began with a conference where leading practitioners from all these major approaches met to analyze and discuss 16 concepts that are crucial to our understanding of memory. Each of these 16 concepts is addressed in a section of the book, and in the 66 succinct chapters that fill these sections, a leading researcher addresses the section's concept by clearly stating his or her position on it, elucidating how it is used, and discussing how it should be used in future research. For some concepts, there is general agreement among practitioners from different fields and levels of analysis, but for others there is general disagreement and much controversy. A final chapter in each section, also written by a leading researcher, integrates the various viewpoints offered on the section's concept, then draws conclusions about the concept. This groundbreaking volume will be an indispensable reference for all the students and researchers who will build upon the foundation it provides for the new science of memory.