William Carpenter (1813-85) was trained as a doctor; he was
apprenticed to an eye surgeon, and later attended University
College London and the University of Edinburgh, obtaining his M. D.
in 1839. Rather than practising medicine, he became a teacher,
specialising in neurology, and it was his work as a zoologist on
marine invertebrates that brought him wide scientific recognition.
His Principles of Mental Physiology, published in 1874, developed