In Commerce before Capitalism in Europe, 1300-1600, Martha C.
Howell challenges dominant interpretations of the relationship
between the so-called commercial revolution of late medieval Europe
and the capitalist age that followed. Howell argues that the
merchants, shopkeepers, artisans, and consumers in cities and
courts throughout Western Europe, even in the densely urbanized Low
Countries that are the main focus of this study, were by no means... more...