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In 1208 Pope Innocent III called for a Crusade—this time, against a country of fellow Christians. The new enemy: Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse, prince of all the territories in southern France where the langue d’oc was spoken. Thus began the Albigensian Crusade, which culminated in 1244 at the mountain fortress of Montségur with the massacre of the Cathars, or “pure ones”—a faith more ancient than Roman Catholicism. This... more...