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The first Italian armored cars were used in the war in Libya in 1911–12 against the Ottoman Empire. With few tanks being developed during World War I, the Italians relied instead on the development of more mobile armored cars like the Ansaldo Lancia 1 Z. After the war, the army focused on the Alpine battlegrounds of Italy's northern borders, and did not consider armored cars suitable for reconnaissance duties. The experience of the... more...

The Blackshirt legions were raised under army control from 1928, and were employed in 1933 in Libya in counterinsurgency operations against the Senussi tribes; from 1935 in Italy's war against Ethiopia; and during the Spanish Civil War. Following the outbreak of World War II, the Blackshirts fought in North Africa, Greece, Croatia, on the Eastern Front and finally in Italy itself following the Allied invasion. This book documents the... more...

What happened and why at one of the most decisive World War II victories   The Second Battle of El Alamein marked a major turning point in the Western Desert Campaign of World War II. El Alamein saw two of the greatest generals of the war pitted against each other: Rommel and Montgomery. Through key profiles and a chapter devoted to the armies, this book explores what made these men inspired leaders and what led to their... more...

The tale of one of the longest-running sieges in British military history, and a potent symbol of resistance The siege of Tobruk lasted 240 days during which the "gallant garrison" of Allied soldiers, primarily the Australian 9th Division, held out against constant attacks from Rommel's Afrika Korps. The battle became a potent symbol of British resistance. However, Tobruk's importance was far beyond that of a mere symbol in... more...

In 1940 a British offensive in the Western Desert provoked a major Italian military disaster. By early February 1941 the whole of Cyrenaica had been lost, and German help became necessary to avoid the loss of the entire of Libya. On 14 February 1941 the first echelons of German troops hurriedly arrived at the port of Tripoli, starting the 27-month German engagement in Northern Africa. This book covers the complex and oft-changing organisation and... more...


The period 1944-45 was one of change for the Panzer Divisions. In summer 1944 the new-type Panzer Division was introduced with a reduction in the number of tanks, a change that was mainly seen in North-West Europe. On the Eastern Front, where the bulk of the Panzer Divisions were still employed, the organizational changes were introduced only slowly, mainly during periods of rest and refit. In 1945 the division was again reorganized with a reduced... more...

Focusing on the Italian Army in North Africa during World War II, which fought alongside the Afrikakorps under Rommel versus Montgomery and Patton, this title combines with the previous Warrior series books on the subject (and other Osprey titles) to complete the picture of the War in the Desert. Despite the attention paid to the Afrikakorps over the years, it was the numerically far superior forces of the Italian Army that held the line and formed the... more...

The Italian army, unlike those of the British and French, did not use tanks in combat during World War I and, by November 1918, only one training unit equipped with French Schneider and Renault tanks had been formed. This would largely influence the development of Italian armour during the interwar period - having not had any chance to evaluate firsthand the use of armour on the battlefield, and given the overall strategic settings that saw Italy... more...