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This book introduces multidimensional scaling (MDS) and unfolding as data analysis techniques for applied researchers. MDS is used for the analysis of proximity data on a set of objects, representing the data as distances between points in a geometric space (usually of two dimensions). Unfolding is a related method that maps preference data (typically evaluative ratings of different persons on a set of objects) as distances between two... more...

This book introduces MDS as a psychological model and as a data analysis technique for the applied researcher. It also discusses, in detail, how to use two MDS programs, Proxscal (a module of SPSS) and Smacof (an R-package). The book is unique in its orientation on the applied researcher, whose primary interest is in using MDS as a tool to build substantive theories. This is done by emphasizing practical issues (such as evaluating model fit), by... more...