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New directives in the European Union forced the national governments to release new laws on the collection and recycling of electronic waste. Producers of electrical/electronic equipment are now required to fulfill several tasks on an administrational level, such as registration and regular declarations, as well as ensure take back and recycling operationally. The national laws and requirements strongly differ from country to country and created a... more...

Manufacturing in Europe is under great pressure from structural changes in the global economy. The high technical, social and cultural standards in Europe mean that our manufacturing enterprises lead the world but inevitably production and consumption continues to migrate to regions that allow higher profitability from lower costs of production with the promise of new markets. Structural changes in European industries will influence employment and... more...

Life cycle design is understood as "to develop" (to plan, to calculate, to define, to draw) a holistic concept for the entire life cycle of a product". Life cycle design means a one time planning during the concept phase of a product in which the pathway of a product over the entire life cycle is determined. So e.g. the planning of possible services for a product during its utilization phase, the way of material recycling, how and which parts can be... more...